the traditional tillage in which heavy plows are used along with the degradation of the soil can lead to soil loss and the formation of a solid layer below the superficial layer of the soil, and that decreases soil permeability while increases its susceptibility to erosion and then deterioration.
With the progression of science, and attention to damage control, concepts of plowing have developed, the most important are, Minimum tillage, is a system where soil conservation is the main goal, however, minimum soil manipulation is necessary for a successful crop production, this method limits soil erosion and preserve soil structure by the relatively less pressure applied when tilling, moreover, it increases soil permeability in the tilled layer of soil.
Zero Tillage , describes the practice of sowing a new crop directly into a not tilled(plowed) soil since the harvest of the previous crop. Weed control is usually achieved by pesticides. Zero tillage is used in flat soil, coarse-textured, with good internal drainage and a wide biosphere.
Conservation tillage , which is a system that aims to create a suitable soil environment by reducing plowing. The benefits of conversion tillage are reducing soil erosion, conserving soil moisture, avoiding fluctuations of soil temperature in the arable soil depth, and reducing the costs of soil preparation.
The use of synthetic fertilizers , they are compounds that contain high concentrations of the necessary nutrients the plants need in abundance, which help in its growth, the plants need are summarized in three main categories: primary, secondary, and micro-nutrients. Fertilizers components depend on the type of nutrients available.