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Chili (Capsicum Annum) from the family "Solanaceae" is known worldwide as hot pepper. It originates in Central and South America, but it grows successfully in Sudan its local name is (Shattah). Omdurman is considered an important center for the trading of chilli.
Chili is a short-lived herb grown on an annual basis and can be harvested after about two to four months after planting. Chili pepper pods which are also referred to as berries vary in size, shape and color and are used fresh or dried or preserved. The fruits are gathered and then dried away from the sun and packed. It grows in moderate and hot regions and adapt to high temperatures, but if the weather is too hot, this affects the level of produce.
It is used as a spice in cuisines all over the world in making pickles, sauces and essences and it is also used to cause weight gain as it increases your appetite. Chili helps in curing Rheumatism since it is rich in capsaicin and it desensitizes nerves and helps in controlling pain. Capasicin has pain-relieving qualities similar to morphine. A single chili contains a day's supply of beta carotene and more Vitamin C than recommended on a daily intake and this makes it valuable in fighting heart disease and cancer. It is also useful in curing digestive ailments and curbing toothache. Additionally, it helps in managing arthritis pain and headaches. It is also used in a spray for personal protection as a non-lethal weapon. Additionally, they cure colds and yellow fever.
Capiscum is divided into five types, annuum, frutescens, chinense, pubescens and baccatum. They range in color from green to red to yellow and orange. Their intensity is traced back to capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) and other chemicals known as capsaicinoids. These substances cause a burning sensation and release endorphins.